JAMB syllabus for Computer Science

JAMB aim of providing syllabus is for candidates to have a view of the possible area of concentration, and prepare for the JAMB examination. The computer science syllabus’ aims are to rate the candidate’s level of understanding and knowledge of the following:

1. Evolution of Computing Systems

2. Basic concepts of computer and its operations

3. Problem-solving skills, data processing, and practical skills in Computing

4. System software and Application Software.

5. Operations of Basic computer hardware — Input, Output, Memory and Central Processing Unit

6. Application of Online resources and Online skills

7. Ethics and human issues in computing

8. Career Prospects in Computing 

For candidates who registered Computer science in JAMB, here are the list of topics to be studied:

List Of Topics for Computer Science

A. Evolution of Computing

B. Fundamentals of Computing

C. Computer Application Packages

D. Managing Computer Files

E. Computer Maintenance and Safety Measures

F. Information & Communication Technology (ICT)

G. Developing Problem-Solving Skills

H. Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Robotics

I. Computer Ethics and Human Issues 


1. History of computing


a. Pre-Computing Age – 19th-century; Features and components of early computing devices

b. Computing Devices – 20th Century

c. The history behind each device


Candidates should be able to:

i. Identify the various computing devices since the beginning of counting/computing

– Abacus

– Slide Rule

– Napier’s Bones

– Pascal Calculator

– Leibnitz Multiplier

– Jacquard Loom

– Charles Babbage’s Analytical Engine

– Hollerith Census machine and

– Burrough’s machine. 

ii. Discuss the contributions and uses of each of the founders of these devices:




– Desktop Personal Computers, etc 

2. Classification of computing devices 


a. By Generation

b. By Size

c. By Purpose

d. By type


Candidates should be able to:

i. Relate each generation with its characteristic feature.

– First, Second, Third, Fourth to the current generation.

ii. Describe each generation under the following:  

– Year of Development

– Basic components/Type of Technology

– Speed of operation

– Storage Capacity/Component

iii. Explain the differences in the classification of computing systems by size (micro, mini, mainframe, and super)

iv. Differentiate among the various types of modern computer systems in respect of sizes and basic components, data and usage

– Personal Computers

– Desktops

– Laptops

– Tablets

– Hand-held

– Servers

– Workstations

– Mainframes 

– Wearable

– Supercomputers

– Digital

– Analog

– Hybrid

– Special purpose

– General-purpose. etc

v. State the importance and use of these computing systems

2. Classification of computing devices  


a. By Generation

b. By Size

c. By Purpose

d. By type


Candidates should be able to:

i. Relate each generation with its characteristic feature.

– First, Second, Third, Fourth to the current generation.

ii. Describe each generation under the following:  

– Year of Development

– Basic components/Type of Technology

– Speed of operation

– Storage Capacity/Component

iii. Explain the differences in the classification of computing systems by size (micro, mini, mainframe, and super)

iv. Differentiate among the various types of modern computer systems in respect of sizes and basic components, data and usage

– Personal Computers

– Desktops

– Laptops

– Tablets

– Hand-held

– Servers

– Workstations

– Mainframes 

– Wearable

– Supercomputers

– Digital

– Analog

– Hybrid

– Special purpose

– General-purpose. etc

v. State the importance and use of these computing systems

SECTION B: Fundamentals of Computing 

3. Overview of Computing Systems 


a. Two math constituents of a computer (hardware and software) 

b. Characteristics of computers 

c. Type, examples, and uses of computer hardware 

d. Logic Circuits 

e. Types, examples, and uses of software 


Candidates should be able to: 

i. Define Computer system in relation to its nature and programmability

ii. List functional parts of computer systems

iii. Explain the characteristics of computers (Electronic, Accuracy, Speed, interactive, Reliability, Consistency, Large Storage, etc.)

iv. Identify the differences between hardware and software 

Candidates should be able to:

i. Define and give examples of hardware devices

ii. List components of computer hardware, their functions, and different types -Central Processing Unit, Peripherals (Input and Output devices), and Storage media

iii. Explain the differences between input and output devices

iv. Explain the functions of major input devices and give examples of the major input devices (keyboards, mouse, scanner, joystick, light pen, voice, digital camera, etc.)

v. Explain the classification of keys on the keyboard (function, numeric, alphabetic, cursors.)

vi. Explain the features, functions, and operations of the mouse

vii. Explain the differences among keyboard, mouse, light pen, scanner, digital camera, and output devices.

viii. Define and give examples of output devices (monitor, printer, speaker, plotters)

ix. List the different types, features, and uses of each output device above.

x. Explain the similarities and differences among inkjet, laser, and line printers

xi. List the components of CPU — Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU), Control Unit (CU), and Registers.

xii. Explain the functions of ALU, CU, and Registers.

xiii. Distinguish between Primary and Secondary Memory (Storage) units

xiv. List the components of Primary Memory Unit (Random Access Memory (RAM), Read-Only Memory (ROM))

xv. Explain the uses and differences between RAM and ROM 

xvi. Explain the functions of secondary (auxiliary) storages

xvii. List different types of secondary storage

xviii. Give examples of secondary storages (Floppy disks, magnetic tape, hard disks, compact disk (CD), Digital Video Disk (DVD), USE, etc.)

xix. Carry out a comparative analysis of auxiliary storage devices in respect of size, speed, cost, and technology (access mode, component, etc.).

xx. List different units by which storage is measured and their relationships – bits, bytes, nibbles, words, kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, terabytes, etc.

xxi. Relate the relationships between Micro, Mega, Giga, and Terra bytes. 

Candidates should be able to:

 i. Define

– Registers

– Bus

– Address

ii. Explain the functions of the following Registers: 

– MDR (Memor• Data Register)

– MAR (Memory Address Register)

– MBR (Memory Base Register)

– AC (Accumulator)

– PC (Program Counter).

– CIR (Current Instruction Register), etc.

iii. Explain the differences between register and main memory

iv. State the major steps involved in how a computer converts data to required information (Input — Process — Output)

v. Enumerate factors affecting the speed of data transfer (bus speed and bus width) 

Candidates should be able to: 

i. Define different type types and uses of gates: AND, NOT, OR, NOR, NAND

ii. Interpret Logic equations for AND, NOT, and OR gates

iii. List the symbols of AND, NOT, and OR gates

iv. Construct Truth Table for standard logic gates — AND, NOT, OR. gates

v. Define comparator

vi. Construct a simple comparator with XOR (Exclusive OR) and NOR gate 

Candidates should be able to:

 i. Differentiate between system and application software. 

ii. List different types of System software (Operating Systems, Utility Software, Middleware, Device Drivers, Translators, etc.)

iii. Define Operating System (OS) 

iv. List functions of OS

v. List different types of OS User Interfaces (Text (Command-Line and Menu) and Graphical User Interface (GUI))

vi. Give examples of Operating Systems (MS Windows, LINUX, UNDC, etc.)

vii. Discuss different OS on phones, iPad (Android, Blackberry, iPhone, etc.)

viii. Define Utility Software

ix. List functions of Utility Software

x. List different types of Utility Software

xi. Give examples of Utility Software (Editors, Anti-Virus, etc.)

xii. Define Translators Explain the functions of Translator Software

xiv. List the different categories of translators (Interpreter, Assembler, and Compiler)

xv. Explain the differences among the categories of translators. 

Candidates should be able to: 

i. List examples of application software and their usage

ii. Differentiate between open source and proprietary software

iii. Different methods of acquiring Application software (Built in house and Off the Shelf)

iv. Explain the differences between User Application program and general-purpose Application packages

v.  Give examples of common off Shelf Application packages and their examples.

– Word Processing (MS Word)

– Spreadsheet (Excel)

– Database (Access)

– Presentation (PowerPoint)

– Graphics (Adobe Photoshop)

– Accounting (Sage)

– Payroll (Sage) 

– Government (Remita)

– Banking (Fusion Banking Essence)

– Statistics (SPSS)

– Educational (School Shell)

– Hospital ( eHospital), etc.

4. Data and Information 


a. Differences between Data and  Information 

b. Data representation. 

c. Methods of Digitization 


Candidates should be able to: 

i. Define data and information

ii. List properties of information 

Candidates should be able to: 

i. List different types of data types (integers, real numbers. strings, multimedia (image, audiovisual, signal etc.)

ii. Identify ways of representing and handling data, that is number bases with special reference to binary, decimal, hexadecimal, etc. 

Candidates should be able to:

i. Define digitization

ii. Explain the process of digitalization(manual, heads-up, interactive tracing, automatic)

iii. List different formats of digitized data (image, audio, video, motion, text, multimedia, etc.) 

SECTION C: Computer Application Packages 

5. Word Processing package


(a) General concept

(b) Creating and saving documents

(c) Editing, formatting, and insertion 

(d) Printing

(e) MS Word

  i. Features

  ii. Launch MS Word

  iii. Basic operations

  iv. Other operations 


Candidates should be able to: 

i. Define word processing, and give examples of word processing packages. (MS Word, WordStar, WordPerfect, Open Word, etc.)

ii. Identify features of Word Processing packages in general (create, save, edit, insert, print, share, etc.) 

iii. List the application areas of Word Processing packages (Office, Publishing, Journalism, Education, etc.) 

Candidates should be able to: 

i. Launch effectively MS word.

ii. Perform MS Word basic operations- create, edit, save, retrieve, print, copy and move, etc.

iii. Use different types and sizes of fonts

iv. Perform MS Word operations

v. Format, justify, search/explore, etc. – Carry out spell checking and file merging operations

vi. Close MS Word. 

6. Spreadsheet package


(a) General concept

(b) Creating and saving documents 

c) Editing, formatting and insertion

(d) Printing

(e) MS Excel

   i. Features

   ii. Launch MS Excel

   iii. Basic operations

   iv. Other operations


Candidates should be able to: 

i. Define Spreadsheet and give examples of Spreadsheet packages. (MS Excel, VisiCalc SuperCalc, SPSS, Cak etc.)

ii. Identify features of Spreadsheet packages in general (create, save, edit, insert, print, share etc.)

iii. List the application areas of Spreadsheet packages (Accounting, Engineering, Statistics, Calculation, what- if-scenarios, Education, etc.) 

Candidates should be able to: 

i. Launch effectively MS Excel.

ii. Define basic terms in MS Excel -worksheet, workbook, cells, cell ranges, etc.

iii. Use MS Excel to: create, edit, save, retrieve, and print spreadsheet documents.

iv. Use data types in MS Excel (Number, Labels, Formula, etc.)

v. Perform basic operations in MS excel -Data Entry, Saving, Retrieve, move, copy, etc.)

vi. Perform arithmetic calculations using formula and inbuilt functions, etc.

vii. Use different types and sizes of fonts

viii. Perform additional MS Excel operations (Formatting, Editing, Printing, Drawing charts etc.)

ix. Close MS Excel. 

7. Database package


(a) Definition of Database and examples of database packages

(b) Database organizations

(c) Different features of database format 

(d) Basic operations of Database using MS Access

(e) Create a database using MS Access 

(f) Carry out operations on an existing database using MS Access. 


Candidates should be able to: 

i. Define Database and give examples of Database packages. (Dbase, Foxbase, MS Access, Oracle, etc.)

ii. Define basic database terms (File, Record. Field, key, form, table, etc.)

iii. List and explain different types of database organization (Hierarchical, Network, and Relational.)

iv. List the application areas of Database in different organizations (Office, Home, Education, Government, Hospital, Agriculture, etc.) 

Candidates should be able to: 

i. Explain different features of database format in MS Access:

– Files designed as tables

– Tables comprising of rows and columns

– Row containing related information about a record

– Column containing specific type of information about a field 

ii. Carry out steps to create a database in MS Access to:

– Define the structure of a database

– Indicate field type (numeric, character, data, text, etc.)

– Enter data

– Save data 

iii. carry out basic operations on an already created MS Access database:

– searching, modifying, sorting, reporting, selecting, inserting, etc. 

iv. Close the MS Access database. 

8. Graphics Package


(a) Definitions and examples of Graphic packages

(b) Features of CorelDraw

(c) Simple design using CorelDraw 


Candidates should be able to: 

i. Define Graphics and give examples of Graphic packages (Paint, Harvard Graphics, Photoshop, CorelDraw, Autocad etc)

ii. Explain features of CorelDraw (LiveSketch Tool, Multi-Monitor, Healing Clone Tools, Copy Curve Segments, Gaussian Blur Feature, Touch-Friendly GU Interface, Powerful Stylus Enhancements, Import Legacy Workspaces, Prominent Interactive Sliders, Custom Node Shapes, Font Filtering and Search, Corel Font Manager, Enhanced Vector Previews, Handles and Node etc )

iii. Use features of CorelDraw to activate existing CorelDraw files

iv. Use CorelDraw to design

– Business card

– School logo

– National flag

– Invitation card

– Certificate, etc.

9. Presentation Package 


(a) Definition of Presentation package and examples of Presentation packages 

(b) PowerPoint 

   i. Features of PowerPoint Environment 

   ii. Steps in activating an existing PowerPoint 

   iii. PowerPoint operations 


Candidates should be able to: 

i. Define Presentation and give examples of Presentation packages (MS PowerPoint, Windows Movie Maker, Micromedia Flash, impress, Apple keynotes, etc.) 

ii. Explain features of PowerPoint Environment (Animation Painter, Video Editor, create a video of your presentation, Automatic Ribbons Toolbars, Transitions, Sections, Cropped Tool, Mask Feature, Effective Preview, Screen Shot, Smart Guides,)

iii. Explain steps in activating a PowerPoint presentation

iv. Perform PowerPoint operations to:

– Create new presentation

– Insert pictures, text, graphs, animated contents, add new slide, etc.

– Save presentation, run slide show, print presentation, close presentation etc. 

10. Web Design Package 


(a) Definition and examples of Web Design Packages 

(b) Uses Web Design Packages 

(c) Elements of Web design using Dreamview 


Candidates should be able to: 

i. Define and Give examples of Web design packages (HTML, XML, Dreamweaver, Rapidweaver, Google Web Designer, Microsoft Sharepoint Designer, Net Object Fusion, Xara Web Designer etc.) 

ii List Elements of Web Design

– Navigation

– Visual design

– Content

– Web friendly

– Interaction Information Accessibility

– Intuitiveness 

–  Branding

– Turnaround time

– Conversion etc. 

iii. Use Dreamweaver for:

– Social Media Management

– Social Media Marketing

– Website Design & Web Development

– Pay Per Click (PPC) Management and Advert Consulting etc. 

SECTION D: Managing Computer Files 

11. Concept of Computer Files


(a) Definitions of basic terms

(b) File organisations

(c) Methods of accessing files

(d) File classifications

(e) Criteria for classifying files 


Candidates should be able to: 

i. Define some basic terms (File, record, field, data item etc.).

ii. Identify and use of basic data types (numeric, alphabetic, and alphanumeric)

iii. Explain the relationship among file structure items (Data item — field – record-file-database)

Candidates should be able to: 

i. Classify files according to how they are organised. (Serial, Sequential, Index and random)

ii. Access files as appropriate (Serial, Sequential and Random).

iii. Classify files into:

   – Master

   – Transaction

   – Reference

iv. Explain the criteria used in classifying files

   – Nature of content (Program and Data)

   – Organization method

   – Storage medium

   – Date

   – Size etc. 

12. Handling Computer Files


(a) Basic operations

(b) Data Loss

(c) Security 

(d) Computer versus manual files


Candidates should be able to-

i. Perform basic file operations – Create, Delete, Retrieve, Insert, Copy, View, Update, Open, Close etc. 

ii. Identify causes of data loss of:

   – Overwriting

   – Inadvertent deletion

   – Hardware malfunction

   – Virus attack

   – Theft

   – Arson

   – Natural Disaster etc. 

ii. Use different methods of securing data and maintaining its integrity

   – Backup

   – Antivirus 

   – Personal Identification Number

   – Biometrics

   – Passwords

   – Proper labelling of storage devices

   – CCTV Physical Security

   – Fire Extinguisher

   – Smoke Alarms etc. 

v. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of computer and manual file (security, speed of access and creation cost of setup and maintenance, electricity supply, etc.)  

SECTION E: Computer Maintenance and Safety Measures 

13. Booting and shutting down process 


Candidates should be able to-

i. Defined booting

ii. List the two types of booting process (cold and warm booting)

iii. Explain the difference between cold and warm booting.

iv. Explain the steps involved in booting and shutting down a computer system  

14. Computer Maintenance 


Candidates should be able to:

i. Perform general cleaning of the computer system

ii. Charge and replace battery for portable systems and UPS

iii. Clean drive lens

iv. Perform simple hardware and software maintenance

v. Recover data from a crashed system 

15. Computer Room Management 


Candidates should be able to:

i. Define proper sitting arrangement

ii. Position the monitor, keyboard, CPU, Mouse and other peripherals appropriately

iii. Ensure Proper illumination of the computer room

iv. Maintain a dust free environment

v. Keep liquid away from a computer room

vi. Keep strictly to laboratory rules and regulations 

SECTION F: Information & Communication Technology (ICI) 

16. Communication Systems


(a) Definitions and Acronym of ICT

(b) Types and examples of ICT 


Candidates should be able to: 

i. State the full meaning of the acronym ICT

ii. Define ICT iii. List types of ICT.

   – Broadcasting

   – Telecommunication

   – Data Network

   – Information Systems

   – Satellite Communication, etc.

iv. Give examples of Broadcasting

   – Radio broadcasting

   – Television Broadcasting

   – Satellites Broadcasting etc.

v. List types of Telecommunications

   – Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN Land Line

   – Mobile phone system

   – Circuit Switched Packet Telephone System (CSPT)

   – Satellite Telephone System

   – Fixed Wireless Telephone System etc,

vi. List types of Data Network

   – Personal Area Network (PAN)

   – Local Area Network (LAN)

   – Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

   – Wide Area Network (WAN)

   – Intranet

   – Internet etc.

vii. List types of Information System

   – Data Processing System

   – Global Positioning System (GPS), etc. 

17. Application areas of ICT


(a) Application areas

(b) ICT based Devices 


Candidates should be able to: 

i. Define Applications Areas of ICT:

   – Teleconferencing

   – Video conferencing

   – Telecommuting

   – Telecomputing

   – Messaging

   – Information search, retrieval and archival systems

   – E-Learning

   – Telemedicine

   – E-Commerce

   – E-Government

   – E-Library, etc.  

ii. List types of ICT Devices:

   – Mobile phones

   – Computers Automated Teller Machines (ATM)

   – Dispensing Machines

   – Point of Sale Machines Automated Cash Register (ACR)

   – Radio sets

   – Television sets

   – Scanners, etc. 

18. Internet 


(a) Definition of terms 

(b) Internet Browsers

(c) Features of Internet Browsers

(d) Internet Services 


Candidates should be able to: 

i. Define Internet

ii. Define and illustrate use of:

   – Home page

   – Browse

   – Browser

   – Chatroom

   – Cybercafe

   – Http

   – Html

   – ISP

   – Webpage

   – Website, etc.

iii. Access the Internet through any of the browsers

   – Internet Explorer

   – Opera

   – Firefox

   – Cometbird

   – tibuntu

   – Google Chrome

   – Phoenix, etc.

iv. Explain features of the Internet Browsers

   – Title Bar

   – Menu Bar

   – Tool Bar

   – Address Bar

   – Icons

   – Search Bar 

19. Electronic Mail


(a) Definition

(b) Service 

(c) Steps involved in creating and opening mail (email box. and chatting) 

(d) Features of e-mail address 


Candidates should be able to: 

i. Define Electronic Mail and Chatting U. List e-nuil unites.

   – Creating e-mail address

   – Composing e-mail

   – Sending/receiving e-mail

   – Adding attachment 

   – Chatting

   – Creating mailing list group etc

ii. Explain the features in an e-mail address e.g [email protected] (user@Domairnname). Explain the components of domain name.

20. Networking


(a) Definitions

(b) Network types

(e) Network topologies

(d) Network devices 


Candidates should be able to: 

i. Define computer network

ii. List and define venous types of Networks:

   – PAN

   – LAN

   – WAN

   – MAN

   – Milne

   – Extinct

   – Internet

iii. Explain the differences in basic network topologies:

   – Star

   – Boo

   – Ring

iv. Define and explain the use of network devices:

   – Hub

   – Modems

   – Switches

   – Routers

   – Gateway

   – Repeaters

   – Access Points Interface (API)

   – Network Interface Card (MC), etc.

21. World Wide Web (www) 


(a) Definition and full meanings of acronyms 

(b) Brief history of www

(c) Basic terminologies

(d) Protocol

(e) Advantages and disadvantages of 

(f) Navigation through websites 

(g) Software for web development 

(h) Differences between email and website 


Candidates should be able to: 

i. Give fill meanings of www. HTTP, HTTPS, HTML, XML

iI. Explain the history behind www

iii. Explain basic terminologies: 

   – www

   – website

   – Homepage

   – Protocol, etc.

iv. Define Protocol and list different types of protocols (http, https, fp, etc.) 

v. List uses and benefits of www.

   – Accessible from anywhere around the globe with the availability of the Internet access to information or make information accessible to the world

   – connect to people from anywhere from home

   – purchase products online anywhere in the comfort of your home

   – create website for your business and do a lot much more than the physical office

   – communicate with anyone around the world through text, chats, and email

   – Online course can be completed using www.

   – Online marketing and branding of businesses

   – Facilitate establishing professional contacts

   – Unlimited access to information, etc. 

vi. List disadvantages of truly

   – Risk of data and identity theft

   – Cyberbullying

   – Easy spread of fake news

   – Hacking

   – Spam mails

   – Paedophile, etc. 

vi. Navigate through websites.

   – wwwjamb.org.ng

   – www.waec.orz.ng

   – www.neco.ng

   – www.ui.edu.ng

   – www.google.com, etc.

vii Use of software for web development

   – Frontpage

   – WordPress

   – Dreamweaver

   – Photoshop

   – Google

   – Web Designer, etc.

ix. Differentiate between email and website

   – [email protected] and

   – www.jamb.org.ng 

22. Cables and Connectors


(a) Network cables and connnectors

(b) Computer cables and connectors 


Candidates should be able to:

i. Identify different network cables and connectors

   – Cables (Twisted Pair, Coaxial, Fibre Optics, etc.) Connectors (R.J45, 8311, T-Connectors)

ii Identify different types of Computer Cables and Connectors

   – Cables: Power Cables, Data Cables, Printer Cable, Universal Serial Bus (L’S13); Monitor Cable; Serial Cable, Parallel Cable, etc.

   – Connectors: Male and Female. 

SECTION G: Developing Problem-Solving Skills 

23. Programming Language (PL) 


(a) Derminon and Classification of PL 

(b) Advantages and disadvantages of different levels of PL 


Candidates should be able to: 

i. Define Programming Language (PL)

ii. Identify different classifications of PL.

   – Machine Language: interpreted directly in hardware i.e, binary machine code

   – Assembly languages. thin swappers over a corresponding machine language i.e,  Assembly Language symbolic language.

   – High-Level languages: anything that is machine- independent i.e., BASIC, C, Java; Fortran 200S, Python. Pearl etc.

iii. Give advantages and disadvantages of Machine Language, Assembly Language, and High programming Language.

24. High Level Languages (HLL) 


(a) Classifications of HLL 

(b) Characteristics of HLL

(c) Translator


Candidates should be able to: 

i. Classify High-Level programming Languages into:

   – Scientific

   – General Purpose

   – Business – Object oriented

   – Procedural

   – Artificial Intelligence

   – Suing processing

   – Domain Specific

   – Scripting

   – Systems

   – Visual

   – Esoteric. etc. 

 ii Explain the characteristics of High Level Programmes Languages:

   – Requires translation into machine language

   – Portable

   – Easier to read, write and maintain as commands are similar to English

   – Use data types and data structures, selection statements and repetition iteration constructs

   – Use Logic operators and functions that are built into the language.

   – Programmers friendly Easy to code, debug and maintain

iii. Define translators and its two basic types:

   – Interpreters

    – Compilers

25. Algorithm and Flowcharts 


(a) Definitions

(b) Functions of Algorithm |

(c) Properties of Algorithm

(d) Flowchart symbols 


Candidates should be able to:

i. Define Algorithm and flowchart

ii. State functions of algorithms: They are used to perform:

   – Calculations

   – Data Processing

   – Automated reasoning etc. 

iii. State and explain the properties of Algorithm Input specified Output specified

   – Definiteness

   – Effectiveness

   – Finiteness etc. 

iv. Identify Flowchart symbols

   – Start Input/Output

   – Process

   – Decision Stop

   – loop

   – Continuation etc. 

v. Draw Flowchart of a given programming problem 

26. Programming Language Structure 


(a) Basic Statements 

(b) Arithmetic/string operators

(c) Subunits

(d) Primitive and non-primitive data 


Candidates should be able to:

i. Identify features/syntax of a programming language

   – Keywords 

   – Variable types

   – Constants’literals

   – Numeric String/alphanumeric

   – Basic characteristics of the language

ii. Basic statements of a high-level programming language

   – Input

   – Output

   – Processing

   – Comments Subunits (Functions, Procedure, Methods, Subroutines etc.)

   – Statements (Iteration/Loop, Conditional, Assignment, Dimension, etc.)

iii. Arithmetic operators and expressions

iv. String operators and expressions

v. Built in functions

vi. Primitive data (Integer, float, Boolean, character, etc.)

vii. Non-Primitive Data Types (Arrays, classes, string, etc.)

viii. Complex data structures (Trees, graphs, linked lists, objects etc.)

27. Program Development


(a) Definition

(b) Characteristics of programs 

(c) Precautions

(d) Steps involved in developing program 


Candidates should be able to: 

i. Define a program

ii. List characteristics of a good program

   – Accuracy

   – Readability 

   – Maintainability

   – Efficiency

   – Generality

   – Clarity etc.

iii. State the precautions required in the development of a program

   – Be stable, steady and patient

   – No step skipping

   – Follow order of execution etc.

iv. Steps involved in program development

   – Problem definition

   – Problem analysis

   – Design (Flow charting/ algorithm) development

   – Program coding

   – Program compilation

   – Program testing/debugging

   – Program documentation

   – Program Maintenance

v. Examples of: 

   – Interpreted program (BASIC, Java, python)

   – Compiled Program (COBOL, FORTRAN, C, C-H-, Java etc.) 

28. System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)


(a) Definition of SDCL

(b) Stages of SDLC 


Candidates should be able to: 

i. Define SDLC

ii. Describe SDLC

iii. Explain stages in SDLC

   – Preliminary study (Identification of the problem, Recognition of the Need)

   – Feasibility Analysis

   – Design Implementation (coding, testing, documentation and delivery )

   – Maintenance Review

iv. Draw a diagram of a SDLC 

SECTION H: Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Robotics 


1. Definition of AI 

2. Branches of AI 

3. Applications of AI


Candidates should be able to:

i. Define AI

ii. Identify branches of AI

   – Machine Learning unsupervised, reinforcement) (supervised).

   – Neural Network

   – Expert Systems

   – Fuzzy Logic

   – Natural Language Processing

   – Deep Learning etc.

iii. List Application Areas of AI

   – Robotics

   – E-Commerce

   – Navigation

   – Human Resource

   – Healthcare

   – Agriculture

   – Gaming

   – Automobiles

   – Social Media

   – Marketing, etc. 

29. Fundamentals of Robotics


(a) Definition of Robotics

(b) Main Components of Robotics

(c) Types of Robots

(d) Application Areas of Robotics

(e) Advantages and Disadvantages of Robots


Candidates should be able to:

i. Define Robots

ii. Define Robotics

iii. Identify main components of Robots

   – Control system

   – Sensors

   – Actuators

   – Power Supply

   – End Effectors etc.

iv. Mention types of Robots Robots

   – Humanoid Robots

   – Autonomous Robots

   – Teleoperated Robots

   – Augmenting Robots etc.

v. Itemize application areas of Robots

   – Logistics

   – Manufacturing

   – Home

   – Travel

   – Healthcare

   – Security

   – Space exploration

   – Entertainment

   – Agriculture

–    Food Preparation

   – Manufacturing

   – Military

   – Customer Service etc.

vi. State advantages and disadvantages of using Robots 

SECTION I: Computer Ethics and Human Issues 

30.Ethical issues 

31. Computer Security 

32. Cyber risks and protection

a. Computer-related crime

b. Responsibility for computer failure

c. Protection of computer property, records, and software

d. Privacy of the company, workers, and customers. 


Candidates should be able to: 

i. Define computer-related crime.

ii. State examples of computer-related crime. (Compromising computer systems, hacking, theft, etc.)

iii. List methods to prevent unauthorized use of computer system (user identification, Passwords etc.)

iv. List methods to protect computer resources using both electronic and manual methods. 

v. List methods to Protect privacy of individuals (workers, companies, customers, government etc.) by law and electronically.

vi. Define computer security

vii. Identify different types of computer security and their characteristics. Network security Internet security (cyber)

    – Application Security

   – Data security

   – Information security

   – End user security etc.

viii. Identify appropriate security tool to use for the different types of computer security (Firewalls, antivirus software, encryption, etc.)

ix. Identify categories of application threats and their characteristics (Input, authorization, session management, parameter tampering,

x. Identify basic dimensions of Information Security (Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability (CIA))

xi. Mention Network security Issues (unauthorized, intrusion, rules and configurations that protect confidentiality, integrity, and accessibility using both software and hardware.)

xii. Mention Network security methods (antivirus software, application security, behavioural analytics, data loss prevention, email security, firewalls, mobile device security, network segmentation, security, and event management (SEIM), Virtual Private Network (VPN), Web security, wireless security; Network Access Control (NAC).

xiii. List Types of cyber security threats (Cyberaime, cyber-attack, cyber terrorism, malware, virus, trojans, spyware, Ransomware, Adware, Botnets, SQL injection, Phishing, Man-in-the-middle attack, Denial of Service, Dridex, Romance scams, Emotet malware 

xiv. List Cyber security safety tips

   – Regular update of software and operating systems

   – Use of anti-virus software

   – Use of strong passwords

   – Do not open email attachments from unknown senders

   – Do not click on links in entails from unknown senders or unfamiliar websites

   – Avoid the use of unsecure WIFI networks in public places etc. 

33. Potentials for Higher Studies in Computing


Candidates should be able to: 

i. List possible career paths in computing Software Developer Software Test Engineer Programme Analyst

   – System Developer Web Developer Software Development Engineer,

   – Computer System Analyst

   – Database Administrator

   – System Administrator

   – System Engineer

   – System Analyst

   – Network Engineer

   – Business Analyst

   – Program Manager

   – IT Specialist

   – Data Analyst/Scientist

   – AI and Robotics

   – System Security Analyst

   – Digital Forensic Analyst

   – Mobile App Developer

   – ICT Manager

  – Blogger

   – E- Marketer

   – Social Media Manager

   – ICT Educator

   – Career in Academia

   – Private Entrepreneurship

   – Internet Police

   – IT User Support: Desk Officer

   – ICT Librarian

   – Computer Instructor, etc

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